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In the Victorian era keeping the water hot fell to the task of the Wash Copper boiler. This was an essential part of the modern household kit at the time even into the 1900s.  Without the Wash copper, you would not have had any access to hot or boiling water. Most of them were used for cleaning and washing.

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There were two types available to the Victorian housewife. In older homes, the Wash copper wash built into a utility room or kitchen safely sealed away behind a tough brick exterior.  The lid was either a copper one or some thick wood. The coal or if it was a more modern version gas or oil burner had some access via a metal gate cut into the brickwork where the fuel could be placed or ignited. Copper is an excellent conductor of heat so the water would soon be nice and warm or at boiling after a relatively short period of time.

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The other type of copper boiler was one that could be lugged around the house wherever it was needed. Although the brick version was safe it was static meaning that you had to carry the water around in tin bucket or you washed the items there. The heat from the boiler could be intense, hence the brickwork and the mobile copper were the same. It had an enameled surface to protect and insulate the copper wash inside and this meant that it gave off pleasing warmth that it was apparently nice to rest an aching shoulder against it.

More expensive versions contained a tap or even a system that could vent off the steam into a flue. If it was a hot summer’s day this was a bit of a blessing. If the copper was used just for washing the family’s clothes the whole lot was dumped into the copper wash and “spun” around using a washing dolly. This was a stick with feet on the end that could turn the washing around. It was also used to extract the clothes so that they could be dried through a mangle.

Great care was taken to ensure that the copper wash was kept clean and tidy. Just as you would look to a Boiler Repair Gloucester business through a company like,  the copper was monitored for rust and grease. It was such a vital part of the house that nothing detrimental could be allowed to happen to it.

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Whilst ties may be used for formal occasions, and many men (and women) despise wearing them, there’s no denying a well-chosen tie can make your entire outfit. What’s more, you can actually use your tie to show off a little bit of your personality through the design. Here are some of the more popular tie designs and what they say about the wearer.

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1. The classic striped tie

Nothing can beat a classic, and that’s your motto! You have deep-rooted gentlemanly values and place a huge focus on order and organization. Striped ties are most common for uniforms and can be linked back to the military where they would represent the wearer’s regiment. This may depict your role in the army as to whether you are infantry based or perhaps a tank driver. You may even enjoy some Tank Driving Days from companies such as in your spare time. Whilst some may consider you strict, you see it as being traditional and focused on your goal. Either that or you’re actually a rugby lad living your best life with the tie worn adamantly around your head.

2. The geometric pattern

Typically reserved for people who have a mind for IT or technology in general, the geometric pattern is often accompanied by bold colors. Quite often, the pattern itself is associated with being a ‘geek’ – although despite the seemingly negative connotations, the majority who are branded with this title wear it proudly! The reason being, those who favor this pattern are generally logical and forward-thinking, but with a love for innovation.

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Regardless of your choice in tie patterns, there will be a shirt to match it perfectly.

3. Paisley

This one is for those who stand out, both in terms of personality and fashion. This pattern originates in Persia and has become closely associated with the Boho scene, so you’ll often see it adorning the necks of those who love everything vintage and aesthetic.

Despite the tie being largely dropped and replaced with the more casual open buttoned shirt and blazer, many still feel that ties are essential to complete a suit. Indeed, it can’t be denied they bring a certain class to the outfit, and often make it much better!

4. Animal print

Simply put, you’re fun and light-hearted and don’t take anything too seriously. You exude positive vibes and are undoubtedly unique.

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Although the vast majority of HVAC systems are based on similar main components – a heat source, cooling unit, blower, and ducts – these units can be packaged in different ways and there are many system enhancements. Here are some of the common terms and elaborations you are likely to encounter.

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Air handler unit (AHU)

The AHU is usually a metal enclosure containing the major system components, such as the heating and cooling coils, blower, filter racks, sound attenuators, and airflow regulators. Many AHUs are located inside a building. An outdoor unit is often called a ‘package unit’. When designed for the roof, it is called a ‘rooftop unit’.

The plenum

The plenum is a kind of spaghetti junction that directs airflows. That sounds simple enough, but it is a critical part of an efficient HVAC system and requires careful design. A supply plenum channels outbound air from your AHU to the different zones or rooms that need warm, cool or freshened air. A return plenum receives air from return grilles and directs it back into the AHU.

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Ducts are air-tight channels that conduct air from the supply plenum to the outlet grilles. Ducts also collect and return ‘spent’ air. It is the balance of air inflow and outflow that enables the system to work efficiently.

Although ducts can be manufactured in many shapes and materials, the most common is galvanized spiral duct. This offers excellent weight to strength ratio, is easy to work, join and bracket, and is available from suppliers such as

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Duct fittings

Controlling airflows to take different routes through a ducting network is a specialized skill. Specific fittings help to maintain the balance, including cells, tees, reducers and vent caps. Fittings that split airflow from the main duct into branch ducts are particularly important.

Dampers and diffusers

Dampers are like valves and enable the airflows to be adjusted. They can be manual, remotely controlled or automated. Fire dampers seal ducts automatically if smoke is detected. There are also special dampers to measure airflows, prevent backdrafts, and for other specialized purposes.

Diffuser grilles are often fitted internally to keep airflow uniform, avoiding warmer air separating from cooler and preventing inefficient eddies.


Room outlets include grilles, diffusers and register boxes. They are carefully designed to distribute outflow evenly in the optimum direction(s) and with minimum noise.

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There are lots of brilliant football kits floating around, from the timeless and barely changing England all white to West Germany’s 1990 simple stripe and classy single-color USSR and Netherlands kits from the 70s and 80s. But for every kit memorable in a good way, there is at least one you wish you could forget about completely. However, once you have seen some of these kits there is no forgetting them.

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These are some Football Kit trends that we hope not to see again. Make sure that you order your Discount Football Kits from a reputable supplier such as to ensure your team doesn’t end up on the worst dressed list.

Terrible 1970s Wallpaper

As recently as the 1990s, wallpaper patterns that, luckily, went out of fashion decades before were being revived for top-flight football team kits. Thankfully this is not a trend that has returned. Australia’s 1990 kit is a great example of one that we hope will never see again, with an eye-watering impressionist pineapple pattern.

Scunthorpe’s 94/95 away kit is another example, featuring blue and yellow blotches on a red pinstripe, and invoking feelings of utter disgust in the viewer.

Lastly comes Norwich City’s 93/94 home kit, which strongly resembles a yellow and green version of a London Underground seat.

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‘Natural’ Prints

Referred to by one commentator as the ‘Hull City Disaster’ is Hull city’s 92/93 tiger stripe kit, which is the sort of thing you wouldn’t even see on a Geordie Shore repeat.

This doesn’t end with terrible animal prints or in the 90s, though. Spain’s Deportivo Palencia went with an incredibly creepy flayed muscle kit starting in 2016, which may not be the ugliest kit on this list, but it is just strangely anatomically correct.

Along similar lines but a bit more stylized, we have Italy’s Reggina, which has been using male torso kits since at least 2012. A few years back, they may have resembled a cheap novelty shirt, but they have progressed to something much more stylized but still strangely anatomical.

Eye-Watering Test Patterns

Lastly, we’ll come to those kits that evoke feelings of television not quite getting a signal, with static and flickering images. No kit quite embodies that aesthetic like Norway’s 1996 away kit, complete with 1980s-era text effects and actual static.

Eastern Europe’s fashion sense might have been impaired slightly by communism, but that can’t excuse Estonia’s 1996 kit, which had not one but two horrible clashing patterns.


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The popularity of the sweatshirt spans all social backgrounds and generations, and it’s a staple in most people’s wardrobes. But how did this iconic design develop? Well, it all started in Alabama, in the 1920s, with someone called Benjamin Russell.

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Similar to its cousin the hoodie, the roots of the sweatshirt lie in American sports. Benjamin Russell owned a women’s and children’s undergarment factory, and one day his son, Bennie Russell, came to him with a problem. Bennie played American football and had become frustrated with how uncomfortable the wool jerseys worn by the players were. Using women’s underwear material as an alternative, Benjamin began developing a softer, more comfortable top.

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The popularity among the football team was immediate and the design was quickly adopted by both football and baseball players across America. The sweatshirt design shortly became intrinsically linked with American sport and comfort. If you’re wondering where the name came from, it was coined by factory workers who commented on the state of the garment post-game!

The triangle

Since their inception, sweatshirts have featured a triangle shape on the front collar. The technical name for this feature is the ‘V-insert’ or ‘V-stitch’ – this is a piece of the cotton jersey that’s ribbed or a piece of material that’s elasticized, as is often used in waistbands. Originally, the use of it in a sweatshirt was designed to collect sweat around the neckline and chest while exercising.

Aside from its practical use, the V-stitch also helped control the amount of stretch around the sweatshirt’s neckline when putting it on and taking it off. Nowadays, with modern improvements in fabric design, the triangle is more of a design feature than a technical one. Modern tops like the Farah sweatshirt are inspired by tradition but feature modern design techniques.


Sweatshirts commonly contain a particular knit on the underside that features loops, known as “loopback”. The name derives from “loopwheel”, a machine that was traditionally used to knit the fabric. Early versions of the loopwheel reduced the knit’s tension, but modern methods now create the pattern from two yarns and ensure it’s tightly knitted. This means the tops are more resistant to getting bobbles (known as “piling”) as they age. The loop pattern was originally designed to ‘wick’ sweat away from the body and keep it cool.


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Moving to a new home can be a major upheaval, so it is good to know that with some forethought and planning this task can be accomplished with minimal fuss. Thinking ahead can also help you to reduce the cost of moving too. If you have used a reputable Landlord or estate agency they are bound to of checked the property with property inventory software from inventory base or similar before you even move in so this should one less thing to worry about. This kind of software is called a Property Inventory App and can be very useful, particularly for those looking to rent out their properties.

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Make a plan

Don’t leave everything until the last minute. Put the day for the move in your diary, and then start working towards it. Think about what needs to happen for this to go smoothly, such as reserving a parking spot for your movers. If necessary, make a list.

Start Packing

Start packing when you know that you are moving. Obviously, pack the things you need at least first. You will be surprised how much stuff you can pack away while still going on with your life.

Label everything

Label the boxes so you know what is in them when you come to unpack.

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Get the keys

Make sure everything is ready on the day itself so the whole process is as seamless as possible. Also, make sure that you have the key to open the door of the new place as you don’t want to be stranded on the road surrounded by boxes. For more ideas on how to make moving less unsettling, see this report from The Guardian.


When you arrive at your new residence, unpack. You will know which boxes to unpack first thanks to your detailed labeling. The most important boxes to unpack first will contain items such as plates, towels, and bedding.

Get help

Moving everything on your own will be hard work, so also plan to get some support, such a man with a moving van. Book your man well in advance so this is organized, and you will probably get a better price for the service too. If you are thinking about using a man and van service it would be a good idea to consult local experts.

The company will be able to give you all the advice and guidance you need when booking their services.

Moving can be tiring, but some planning can really make the whole process a lot easier. The key to a successful move is being organized. Think ahead, make lists and where possible delegate to others and moving should go off without a hitch.

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One of the most celebrated films about the tank in World War Two is that of Fury. This is a fictional account but it is based on actual events surrounding the Sherman tank in question. Let’s have a look at the film in a bit more detail before you set offsetting out your day.

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The writer and director of the film used several sources for the movie. The principal source was a non-fiction book called Death Traps. This is a controversial publication as the small Sherman M4 tank was used more than the large and better armored Pershing tank. The M4 stood little to no chance against the massive King Tigers they faced. The only way that they could destroy the Tigers was to get around them and hit them in the thinly armored rear. The damage that was caused would have required a little bit more than your standard metal bonding adhesives, although make some incredible ones, that would have been able to sort some of the damage out. The flaw in that plan is pretty obvious as getting past the Tigers in the first place was problematic.

This is illustrated in the film Kelly’s Heroes where one of the characters points out that the only way he can distract the 3 Tiger tanks is by allowing them to knock holes in his tank or they need to hatch a plan so that he can get behind them.  The serious side of this situation is that loss to US tank crews was extremely high and the author’s comment is that they were sacrificed to make the cheaper more fuel efficient Sherman which was already showing its age when the War moved from Africa to Europe. The director also spoke to veterans and family members who had seen the effects of tank warfare first hand. He also studied historical records and came across a story he could use for his tale of the Fury.

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The Fury is a Sherman Tank driven by a veteran crew that has cut their teeth in North Africa. They now find themselves in France facing stiff German resistance as they try to drive them back to Germany and out of the occupied country. They are joined by a rookie tank member that has trouble fitting into the group. They refuse to give him a nickname until he has proved himself which seems to be the mission of the tanks Captain. He shows the young the recruit the brutality of war forcing him to commit acts of war that he was not expecting. After a young girl that he starts a love affair with is savagely killed he starts to harden and as the tank is crippled by some large Tigers, the crew hide out playing dead. They launch themselves at the passing Germans from inside the Tank killing scores of them before succumbing one by one. Only the young recruit, with the nickname Machine by this point survives.

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New technology has made it easy for people to monitor their health statistics and keep on top of fitness regimes. There are numerous gadgets, many of them wearable, which will record a wide variety of things such as heart rate, blood pressure, sleep patterns, weight, and body mass. Of course, you might not need these if you are living in a peaceful, calm beautifully designed Park Homes Gloucester location at sites including  You may find using these devices will show you just how much your health has improved since you moved into your new home.

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Although it is never advisable to become obsessive over measuring anything, certain groups of people, for instance, those at risk of cardiac disease or strokes, could benefit from keeping an eye on their ‘performance’.

The NHS has a list of some free apps which can monitor your health, including those to help with stopping smoking and losing weight.

More complicated ones can be quite expensive, but here are five of the best to help you decide whether they’re right for you:


Billed as reliable, portable and friendly, the Kito+ measures heart rate, blood oxygen, respiration rate, ECG data, and skin temperature.

It is made up of a small, credit-card sized device that connects to special iPhone cases (for the iPhone 6 and 6S), plus a charger. To take readings you place a finger on the card’s sensors. This device would be useful if you have an irregular heartbeat.

Fitbit Surge

This device measures heart rate, movement (exercise and steps) and sleep patterns, collecting data through an optical sensor and rubber wristband. Relatively cheap, this is a good bet for those who want to check their everyday statistics.

Garmin Forerunner 735XT

An expensive choice, this device measures heart rate, sleep, movement, recovery time and oxygen use, using an optical sensor and a tracking watch. In order to get accurate readings, however, you need to wear the watch continuously.

Withings Blood Pressure Monitor app

This connects to your smartphone to monitor blood pressure as well as heart rate. Easy to use, it is well-designed and can be useful for those concerned about blood pressure.

Withings Body Cardio Scale

This wireless scale offers much more than just weight. It also measures fat, bone and muscle mass and water, plus heart rate, by sending a small electric current through your body.

Monitoring devices could be used in clinical trial services.
Whether you just want to know your basic heart rate or how well your exercise is progressing, high tech monitors can help keep you on track.

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We have been blessed in this country with some of the greatest ever motorsport competitors the world has ever seen.  I really want to have a Sportscar lunch box for my snack and drinks when I’m watching things like the F1 Paddock Club Belgium racing live at the stadium. To be able to get there you will need tickets so you could possibly visits sites such as to have your dream trip.  I can have whatever image I choose and I’d really like to have one with a racing vehicle on it.  But who do I choose? There is a pretty long list.

  1. Sir Sterling Moss. Considered to be one of the greatest drivers to have never won the Formula One Drivers title Stirling Moss is a living legend.  He was runner up four times and was there at the start of the beginning of Formula one. His greatest achievement was to win the Mille Miglia. This was a race that took him around Italy and it had never been won be anyone other than an Italian before. Moss used a navigator and with pace notes to tell him of the hazards ahead he drove his way to an historic victory. He broke several speed records on Bonneville flats and also had a toilet that was electrically heated so the seat never got cold. Vehicle choice: Mercedes SLK from the Mille Miglia.
  1. John Surtees. Surtees is the only person to have won both the Formula one Drivers championship in 1964 and the Motorcycle Riders championship. It’s unlikely that this will ever be repeated. He only came to F1 through a chance test drive at Aston Martin. Choice: his 1960 MV Agusta Motorcycle.
  1. James Hunt. Where do you start with James Hunt? He may have only won one Championship in 1976 but his lifestyle and Playboy charm more than made up for that. He was the last of the cigarettes and alcohol generation of F1 racing drivers when the Champagne was real. He was a fearless driver living for the moment and died tragically young at 45. Choice: It should be his McLaren M23 but the Hesketh 308 (no sponsorship!) sums him up better.

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  1. Barry Sheene.  If James Hunt was the playboy of F1 then Barry was his motorbike equivalent. He and James were great mate’s socializing together. He liked a drink and smoke so much so that he adapted his helmet so he could have a fag right up to race start. He was World Champion in 1976 and 1977. Choice: His 1976 Number 7 Heron Suzuki.

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  1. Nigel Mansell.  The only person to be F1 Champion and Indy car champion at the same time. Nick named “il leone” by the Ferrari fans due to his uncompromising racing style whilst with them. He was so committed he even pushed his Lotus, unaided, over the finish line after it broke down just to salvage 6th place. He was only 19 laps away from the world title in 1986 only for a left rear tyre to give way. He finally took the title in 1992. Choice: Has to be the RED 5 of his 1991 Williams. Preferably the picture of him giving Ayrton Senna a lift back to the pits. Two legends in one!
  1. Lewis Hamilton. His racing story is not yet finished but he is already a legend. The most successful British F1 driver ever with three world titles, 74 poles and 64 wins plus almost winning the title in his first year! Choice: His current Mercedes.

The tricky choice isn’t it?

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We don’t often think about our heating during the summer months, but it’s a time when we really should. It’s very easy to leave the heating on its normal setting from spring into summer and waste valuable energy. Here are a few tips to help you save money on your energy bills in summer.

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House design

If your rooms are all open plan a good way to keep warm air in one area is to put up curtains and get a new source of heat like from a Stoves Northern Ireland company which could be found at websites including This could be a quick and easy solution to warming the room you are currently in without heating the whole house.

Reset your thermostat

There are a couple of things to consider here – not only the temperature that it’s set too, but also the on-off times. It won’t be as cold in the mornings or evenings as it is in winter. Of course, you could also consider turning it off completely and only switching your heating on when you notice the cold.

The Energy Saving Trust has lots of useful information for homeowners to help them understand their existing systems, as well as tips on how to save energy.

Make sure your boiler is serviced

An inefficient boiler can really ramp up the cost of your energy bills, so it’s important to have it serviced annually by a Gas Safe trained engineer. It’s useful to have this done during the summer months so that if it needs repair or replacement, you can have the work completed without having to worry about being freezing cold if you’re without your boiler for a couple of days.

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If you are looking to replace your existing boiler, you should make sure that the supplier you choose is Gas Safe trained.
Get smart

Most appliances, nowadays, can be controlled using your smartphone, and your heating is no different. This technology means that if you install a smart thermostat, you can control your heating remotely. So, if the weather improves while you’re at work, you can turn the temperature down or switch the heating off entirely.

There are a number of smart thermostats on the market today and it’s worth doing some research before you choose one to ensure that it meets your needs.

You can also invest in a smart meter, which will help you to identify where you’re using the most energy and can also alert you to an inefficient boiler or other appliance. Your energy provider will often be able to supply and fit one in your home free of charge.

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